This short paper was written for a response of group discussion on ICU Peace Studies course entitled, “Psychology of Peace and Conflict Resolution” which conducted by Prof. Toshiaki Sasao (ICU Professor in Psychology, Education and Peace Studies) in Spring Term 2014.
Contributions of psychology practitioners on issues of peace, security and conflict are in particular regarding the moral responsibility and expertise of this respective community. Psychology examines the attitudes, values and beliefs of individuals and human in groups on its human nature including on the way of thinking about peace and conflict. Human being has the structure and function of mind which determine as its reality. The way human being comprehends the world and its “reality” keeps changing as well as the way of human being determines the notion of peace and conflict also changing.
Psychology contribution to peace is intertwined with the role of education, since education mainly rely on psychology in its educating process. Education is one of key elements on peace promotion in this world. One of the main problems within humanity is reluctant on the awareness and acceptance of diversity. Education that enlighten and liberate people from illiteracy and innumeracy inspire people to the realization of more peaceful world that respect humankind diversity without any discrimination and bias to the different people from any part of the world. Education is expected to lure people on the appreciation of human kind and life itself. Education leads to enlighten people who respect and responsibly live in society and in a wider global citizenship.
The education concept of concientization and dialogue from Paulo Freire that had been practicing mainly in South America community has the similar direction of the intertwine psychology and education on promoting peace and social justice. As Galtung’s notion of peace that comprises negative peace and positive peace, peace in this term is not only the absence of direct violence (psychical violence, conflict or war) but also the absence of indirect violence (structural violence), or in the other words is the realization of social justice.
By concientization and dialogue method, Freire tried to dismantle the culture of silence in South American society, in particular in Brazil and the traditional passive concept of education in school (banking education). Concientization is translation of Portuguese term conscientização, which is also translated as “consciousness raising” and “critical consciousness”. In this sense, educating people can be done from children on their growing process and also for adults to eradicate illiteracy and innumeracy among them. In particular, learning to read for adults is a process in which content and materials bearing people daily reality, for instance topics on nationalism, profit remittances abroad, the political revolution in Brazil, illiteracy, the vote for the illiterates, and democracy. The process encourages active participation (dialogue) and critical thinking of people own concrete social reality that expected lead into awareness of the possibilities for action and change ‘reality’ toward social justice and welfare for the community. By this meaning, psychology through education can contributes in practical to the eradication of illiteracy and innumeracy toward more peaceful and justice world. 
Avoseh, M.B.M., Literacy and Conscientization in Paulo Freire’s Philosophy of Education, was accessed from:
Christie, Daniel J. and Cristina J. Montiel, “Contribution Psychology to War and Peace” atAmerican Psychologist “Peace Psychology”, October 2013.
Nyirenda, Juma E., The Relevance of Paulo Freire’s Contributions to Education and Development in Present Day Africa, was accessed from
http://archive.lib.msu.edu/dmc/african%20journals/pdfs/africa%20media%20review/vol10n-o1/jamr010001002.pdf at April 17th, 2014 at 20:00.
Sasao, Toshiaki, “General Description”, Course Syllabus of the Psychology of Peace and Conflict Resolution, Spring Term 2014.
Vollhardt, Johanna K. and Rezarta Bilali, “Social Psychology’s Contribution to the Psychological Study of Peace: A Review”, Social Psychology 2008; Vol. 39 (1):12–25.